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NameMorphineAccession NumberDB00295  (APRD00215, DB05354)TypeSmall MoleculeGroupsApproved, InvestigationalDescription

Morphine is the main alkaloid of opium and it was first obtained from the poppy seeds in 1805.1 It is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain but its use is limited due to the induction of tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and high risk of relapse and abuse.2 In its pure form, morphine is ten times more potent than opium and due to this property, it was used extensively in the US Civil War which derived in approximately 400,000 addicted soldiers. After this event, around the second half of the nineteenth century, the science made several efforts to find a less addictive alternative which brought the synthesis of heroin. However, morphine is still the precursor to other opioids such as codeine, fentanyl, methadone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, meperidine, and oxycodone.11 Morphine’s first official product was developed by West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Int. and FDA approved in 1984.10



Categories: ,




  • (−)-morphine
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5alpha,6alpha)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5R,6S,9R,13S,14R)-4,5-epoxy-N-methyl-7-morphinen-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-17-methyl-7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxymorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (5α,6α)-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6-diol
  • (7R,7AS,12bs)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,7,7a-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methano[1]benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol
  • Anhydrous morphine
  • morfina
  • Morphia
  • Morphin
  • Morphinum
  • Morphium



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